Cancer


Definition of Cancer

From the elephant glossary Section: disease


Random Literature
Cancer is a Group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. These contrast with benign tumors, which do not spread.

Possible signs and symptoms include a lump, abnormal bleeding, prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss, and a change in bowel movements. While these symptoms may indicate cancer, they can also have other cause.

With elephants, the more common types of cancer is cancer in Feet, Uterus, Breasts, or Lymph nodes.


Selection pressure for cancer suppression is stronger in Species that are larger and live longer, thus humans have evolved more effective cancer suppression than mice, and larger animals, such as elephants and whales, have evolved more effective cancer suppression than humans.

Cancer incidence does not increase with body size and lifespan. The product of mass and lifespan is not a good predictor of cancer incidence as shown by the logistic regression (model fit shown as red line). The elephant data point is from data collected from Elephant Encyclopedia database and is based off of 644 annotated deaths (Koehl 1995-2012).

We analyzed data from the Elephant Encyclopedia (Koehl 1995-2012) on the cause of death for elephants in captivity in order to get an estimate of their age-incidence and overall lifetime risk of cancer (Figure 5). Out of 644 annotated deaths there were 20 cases of cancer/lethal tumors, resulting in a lifetime cancer incidence of 3.1%.

Using this calculation, the lifetime cancer death rate in elephants in captivity only increased to 4.8%, compared to the 25% lifetime cancer Mortality rates in humans in the United States (ACS
2013) and 13% worldwide (Ferlay et al. 2010).
Caulin, Aleah; "Petos Paradox and the Evolution of Cancer Suppression"

30 Deceased elephants due to cancer.

NameSpecies
Sex
OriginAgeBirthDeath dateDeath reasonParentsArrival
Death location
+ -Andra-EM
F
unknown621959?2021-10-19pathological
Cancer in Uterus
x
Circus Rolando Orfei (Hanmar Circus, Coda Prin)
+ -Mala-LA
F
wild3619852021-07-30?disease
cancer in the Lymph nodes
x 1988-00-00
Platschow Elefantenhof
+ -Juno-EM
F
wild5119702021-03-18euthanised
breast cancer
x 2002-04-25
El Paso Zoo
+ -Pawankali-EM
F
wild?2020-03-02disease
cancer
x
Shri Panchayati Akhada Mahanirvani temple
+ -Hanako-EM
F
captive-born571963-09-242020-02-15euthanised
cancer in foot
Thonglaw x Tuy Hoa1997-12-09
Point Defiance Zoo and Aquarium
+ -Siri-EM
F
wild521963-06-002015-06-24euthanised
because of cancer
x 2015-00-00
Knies Kinderzoo
+ -Bimbi-EM
F
wild4319712014-04-02euthanised
cancer
x 1972-00-00
Walding Zoo
+ -Lumni (Lubni, Luki, Lukky, Lucky)-LA
F
wild3219822014-03-19euthanised
Cancer in Uterus
x 2010-06-17
La Teste Zoo du Bassin d´Arcachon
+ -Limba-EM
F
wild4919642013-12-03euthanised
cancer
x
Bowmanville Zoo
+ -Sara-LA
F
wild511962-00-002013-11-20euthanised
cancer
x 1964-09-08
Rostock Zoo
+ -Jenny-EM
F
wild5219612013-08-23disease
heart attack because of cancer
x 2009-04-04
Belfast Zoo (Bellevue Gardens)
+ -Mila-EM
F
unknown4019732013-07-18disease
cancer in Uterus
x 2008-06-30
Sapucaia Zoo (Parque Zoológico do Rio Grande do Sul)
+ -Nelly (Nella)-EM
F
wild4219702012-10-18disease
cancer?
x 1972-09-19
Rome Zoo
+ -Bandula-LA
M
wild3019822012-10-11euthanised
spleen cancer
x
Natal Zoological Gardens & Lion Park
+ -Loisaba-LA
F
wild131998-01-002011-06-28disease
pneumonia indicating Elephant TB (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) or Cancer
x
Tsavo National Park
+ -Salaita-LA
M
wild220082010-11-14disease
pneumonia indicating Elephant TB (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) or Cancer?
x 2010-09-25
DSWT Ithumba
+ -Darka-EM
F
unknown4219622004-07-14disease
brain cancer
x 1997-07-19
Danzig Zoo (Zoo Gdansk)
+ -Ungerly-EM
F
unknown3319702003disease
cancer
x 2000-00-00
Circus Mundial
+ -Emma Lou-EM
F
wild?2003disease
Stomach Cancer
x 1996-00-00
Wild Adventures
+ -Tharun-EM
M
captive-born51995-12-252000-12-30disease
cancer?
Hussein x Thura2000-06-29
Pont-Scorff Zoo
+ -Trulli-EM
F
wild4219582000-03-30disease
foot problems, foot cancer
x 1960-06-25
Karlsruhe Zoo
+ -Vijaya-EM
M
wild3619631999-09-11disease
brain cancer
x 1975-00-00
Pinnawala elephant orphanage
+ -Judy-EM
F
wild5219451997-10-08disease
Cancer
x 1949-07-19
Oklahoma City Zoo
+ -Pepita-EM
F
wild4519501995disease
Uterus cancer
x 1990-00-00
Zoolandia
+ -Nosey-EM
F
wild4719461993-10-14euthanised
arthritis; possible uterine cancer
x 1949-09-10
Fresno Chaffee Zoological Gardens
+ -Sonia (Sona)-EM
F
wild3519561991-10-16euthanised
hoof cancer
x 1967-09-10
Ostrava Zoo
+ -Zita-EM
F
wild2119691990-07-15disease
cancer in Pancreas
x 1987-08-11
Riga Zoo
+ -Gusti-EM
F
wild1519701985-06-05disease
Cancer
x 1978-01-01
Augsburg Zoo
+ -Timbo-LA
M
wild1719611978-05-03disease
cancer in the stomach
x
Ramat Gan Zoo
+ -Bambi-EM
F
wild2519521977euthanised
foot cancer
x 1955-00-00
Tierpark Berlin




Internal relevant links on website www.elephant.se



Cancer mentioned in The Elephant Database
  • No country match the word Cancer in the database.

9 locations holdings in the elephant database match the word Cancer.

32 elephants in the elephant database match the word Cancer




Reference list Koehl, Dan, (2021). Cancer. Elephant Encyclopedia, available online retrieved 20 September 2021 at https://www.elephant.se/index.php?id=218. (archived at the Wayback machine)


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Selected publications

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