EEGs first documentation; Elefanten am Zoo und Circus
EEGs first documentation; Elefanten am Zoo und Circus

Relevant Literature about Sources
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Large parts of data globally during the last 10 years has been collected by organizations and discussion Groups and a number of contributors, who generously shared with me data of elephants in private correspondence. Among them is Peter Stolk, Gerjan Siet from Netherlands and Robert Cline and Ryan Easley from U.S.A. William Buckles Woodcocks Circus Blog has been a great inspiration, and Buckles helped me when I had questions. Buckles Blog is a very important historical documentation of Circus elephants in Noerth America.

Cited sources


A major part concerning elephants in Europe and North america has been sourced from and inspired by The European Elephant Group (EEG), and their publication Elephants in Zoo and Circus, written by Dr Fred Kurt, Alexander Haufellner, Jürgen Schilfarth, Georg Schweiger from Germany, and John Edwards from United Kingdom. Lately Tobias Dornbush has also shared information.

Asian Elephant Studbook, Europe Regional (EEP) was compiled by Rob Belterman, Ton Dorresteyn and Martin van Wees from Netherlands, as well as the African Elephant Studbook - AZA Elephant TAG/SSP by Amelia Terkel, Israel.

The numerous people behind the Elephant Wiki at, members of the German Tiergarten-Forum, Gerald Postmas website on Dutch elephants, Jonas Livet from France managing the database and photographer Petra Prager from Germany, who manage has been important sources of records in Europe, and have all provided a friendly cooperation. A comprehensive list of elephants from 1878 in Denmark has been compiled by a man who I only know by his sir name Henning, in Denmark, which has also been valuable, as well as late elephant keeper Gerd Kohl, Stephanie Wroben, Daniela Dunger and Heike Klabunde, all five from Germany, while Raffael de Ritis has helped with elephants from Italy, and Christian Hamel from From France. Jim Clubb and Jim Stockley has also helped with insight in elephant on circus in UK, and captive elephants in South Africa. Tobias Dornbusch from EEG, and elephant fan Jan Jacobi, both in Germany, has sometimes provided info and corrections on certain records.

Lately, Circus Knie in Switzerland publisged a book in German, with translated title "100 years of elephants at Circus Knie".

North America

A very large part from EEGs sources regarding Circus elephants in North America are from the extremely impressing work done by a number of circus historians like Richard Reynolds, elephant trainer William "Buckles" Woodcock and Bob Cline, who also wrote the book "Americas Elephants".

Large parts of the database listings of North American elephants has been updated with generous help from The Elephant Managers historian, tiger trainer Ryan Esley, while elephants from North American Zoos has largely been sourced from the North American Studbook for Asian elephants (SSP) by Mike Keele as well as African Elephant Studbook - AZA Elephant TAG/SSP by Deborah Olsen.


For Asia in general, especially Thailand, Richard C. Lair and colleges did fairly early an impressing work of compiling records, under difficult and primitive conditions, which even today stick out as very concise documentations and meant a lot for me in order to start taking the first trembling steps to list elephants from range countries. Richard Lair also wrote the book "Gone Astray: The Care and Management of the Asian Elephant in Domesticity".

Former head for Elephant Kingdom in Surin, Wanchai Tunwattana gave me access to the record keeping of elephants in Baan Ta Klang in Surin, Thailand, where I have spent weeks filing the apr 400 elephants around Surin.


Regarding captive elephants in Indonesia, I the documentation from Way Kambas by Joanne Reilly, has been very useful.


Most elephants from East Africa were documented through Cynthia Moss and the Amboseli Research Foundation, as well as The David Sheldrick Wildlife Trust. Cynthia Moss has published a number of books, including "Elephant Memories: Thirteen Years in the Life of an Elephant Family" and "The Amboseli Elephants: A Long-Term Perspective on a Long-Lived Mammal
The Amboseli Elephants: A Long-Term Perspective on a Long-Lived Mammal".


From Australia and most of the information from Australasian Region was sourced from the Asian Elephant Studbook by David Pepper-Edwards and Research on Circus elephants by
Elizabeth Clark.


Elephants from Japan have in parts been sourced from the Studbooks made by the Japanese Association of Zoological Gardens and Aquariums by Yukio Kawaguchi.


A number of elephants in Cambodia has been updated by assistance from by Jack Highwood and records from Flora and Fauna Foundation.


Elephant survey in Vietnam has been compiled by Cao Thi Ly, and my local Research when visiting Buon Don in Dak Lak, Vietnam.

Sri Lanka

Jayantha Jayewardene has contributed regarding elephants in Sri Lanka.


Upon initiative from Surendra Varma and others, databases has been compiled over captive elephants from Andamans, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and other states in India.

Pathology and diseases

Gary S. Hayward, John Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. has been generously sharing specific information about elephant herpes EEHV cases.

And many others...

Apart from the named persons and institutions, a number of helpful and people from all over the world has joined me in my efforts and generously shared information over longer periods, as well as all those who has written about historical elephants and their history which would otherwise had been difficult to reconstruct, for which I am most greatful.

Reference list Koehl, Dan, (2024). Sources. Elephant Encyclopedia, available online retrieved 20 September 2021 at (archived at the Wayback machine)

Sources used for this article is among others:

  • Dan Koehl

Selected publications
  • Haufellner, Alexander; Kurt, Fred; Schilfarth, Jürgen; Schweiger, Georg; Elefanten in Zoo und Circus, (EEG)

Links about Sources

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