The first captive bred elephants in the western hemisphere were born on circuses. The very first was the male Joe born 31st f May 1875 at Howes Great London Circus (died shortly afterwords) and the second was the female Columbia born 3rd October 1880 on Cooper & Bailey Circus who was 27 seven years on her death 1907, the third was Bridgeport born 1882 at Barnum and Bailey Circus, all three elephants born in U.S.
The first elephant born in a Zoo, was a stillborn calf born 1902 in London Zoo, but bred on Circus. In Buenos Aires Zoo, Argentina, the worlds first Zoo-bred surviving elephant was born 23 february 1905, and got the name Phua Victoria Portena. Unfortunately she died after three years. 1906 the two elephant babies Mädi born in Vienna Zoo. and Editha born in Berlin survived, followed by Kaspar born in Copenhagen Zoo 1907. Vienna Zoo had a stillbirth in 1910, and 1911 Greti was born in in Vienna.In 1912 there were two births; Julius in Copenhagen Zoo and Baby Hutch at Sells Floto Circus in USA.
But it should take many years before the captive elephant breeding was becoming really successful, and one way of getting babies in the last decades is by artificial insemination (AI)In the late nineties, Thailand became the first country with a well documented sustainable captive population, having the birth rate higher than the dead rate (Weerasak Pintawongs).